US Continental Congress Journals


Journals of the Continental Congress
United States of America




Charles Thomson, Secretary

July 1, 1776 to February 28, 1781
Chronology






The United Colonies Continental Congress was called to order on July 1st at 9 am and heated debate consumed most of that hot and humid Monday.  Late in the day it was apparent that the delegates from Pennsylvania and South Carolina were not ready to pass the Lee resolution for Independence:

Resolved, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.

Additionally the two delegates from Delaware were split so debate was postponed until the following day.  On July 2, 1776 both Robert Morris and John Dickinson deliberately “abstained” by not attending the session and the remaining Pennsylvania delegation voted for independence. Henry Middleton’s son, Arthur Middleton, chose to ignore his absent father’s wish and changed the colony's position to yes on independence. Finally the great patriot Caesar Rodney, summoned by fellow delegate Thomas McKean suffering from a serious facial cancer and afflicted with asthma reportedly rode 80 miles through the rain and a lightning storm arriving in time to break the Delaware 1 to 1 dead­lock by casting the third vote for independence. Thus all 12 colonies voted on July 2nd and adopt­ed the resolution, introduced by Richard Henry Lee and John Adams, declaring independence from Great Britain.

Notwithstanding New York’s July 9th approval, the passage of Lee’s Resolution and even John Adams’ letter to Abigail declaring that “The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America, [1] July 4th has been heralded as the birth date of the United States of America since 1777.  Indeed, July 4th has remained sacrosanct despite the enactment of two distinctly different U.S. Constitutions in 1781 and again in 1789 that reformulated the United States’ federal government. 

Why does the U.S. Government, since 1777, celebrate the 4th of July as Independence Day and not the 2nd of July?    

When the twelve United Colonies of America declared their independence on July 2nd the Declaration of Independence (DOI) was already before the Colonial Continental Congress for its consideration.  The first draft was read before the delegates on Friday June 28, 1776, and then ordered to lie on the table over the weekend for their review.  On Monday, July 1st, the DOI was read again to the “Committee of the Whole.”   The DOI was debated along with the much shorter Lee Resolution.

The 12 Colonies, whose members were empowered to declare independence, were unable to garner the necessary 12 delegation votes to make the measure unanimous.  Accordingly, it was decided to postpone the vote on independence until the following day, July 2nd, and the 12 colonial delegations passed the Lee’s Resolution declaring their independence from Great Britain.  The DOI, however, was quite another matter; Committee of the Whole Chairman Benjamin Harrison requested more time and the members agreed to continue deliberations following day.  

On July 3rd, the Continental Congress considered, debated and passed several pressing war resolutions before taking up the DOI resolution.  Once again, not having sufficient time to finalize the proclamation, Chairman Benjamin Harrison requested more time and the U.S. Continental Congress tabled deliberation until the following day.  On the morning of July 4, 1776 the delegates debated and passed the following war resolution: [2]

… that an application be made to the committee of safety of Pennsylvania for a supply of flints for the troops at New York: and that the colony of Maryland and Delaware be requested to embody their militia for the flying camp, with all expedition, and to march them, without delay, to the city of Philadelphia.[3]

The Continental Congress then took up, finalized, and passed the Declaration of Independence: “Mr. Benjamin Harrison reported, that the committee of the whole Congress have agreed to a Declaration, which he delivered in.  The Declaration being read again was agreed to …”[4]

The Declaration of Independence proclaimed why “… these United Colonies are, and, of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States …”[5] and its content served to justify the Colonial Continental Congress July 2nd vote declaring independence. It was the rhetoric in the DOI and not Lee’s Resolution that exacted the vote for independence on July 2nd, 1776, from the 12 state delegations.  Moreover, the July 4th, 1776, resolution included naming the Second United American Republic which was not incorporated in Lee’s Resolution.  It is also important to note that the name, United States of America, was not utilized on any of the Continental Congress resolutions or bills passed after Lee’s Resolution on July 2nd up until the passage of the DOI on July 4th, 1776.

It is true that in Thomas Jefferson’s DOI drafts, the word “States” was substituted for “Colonies” in the stile, or name, “United Colonies of America.”   It is also true that Jefferson’s substitution was in accordance with Lee’s Resolution that asserted the “United Colonies” were to be “free and independent States.”  The new republic was not named the “United States,” however, until the Declaration of Independence’s adoption on July 4, 1776. 

The naming of this new republic was no small matter, and the topic would be addressed again in later deliberations on the Articles of Confederation and the current U.S. Constitution. [6]  As noted earlier, the 1775 Articles of Confederation and Declaration for Taking up Arms initially named the First United American Republic the United Colonies of North America.  The name was only shortened by the Continental Congress to the United Colonies of America in 1776. We must, therefore, pay heed to the fact that the nation’s name was adopted on July 4th, 1776, with the passage of the Declaration of Independence and not on July 2nd with the enactment of Lee’s Resolution.  This circumstance, coupled with the nearly completed Declaration of Independence being laid before the members on June 28th   and present during the July 2nd vote, explicates why the 4th and not the 2nd was designated Independence Day by the Continental Congress and was accepted as such by the then future congresses of the United States of America.  

Charles Thomson Manuscript "Report in July 2, 1776,
Lee Resolution For Independancy Agreed to July 2, 1776"


Nevertheless, for the purposes of establishing the start of the Second United American Republic, we must be more precise in our determination.  The United Colonies of America severed their allegiance to Great Britain on July 2nd, 1776.  The new independent republic of free and independent states enacted resolutions [7] on the Second, Third, and Fourth of July before passing the Declaration of Independence. This Assembly, just like Carpenters’ Hall’s unnamed Congress,[8] formed a United American Republic by enacting bills, resolutions and other legislation on behalf of their now independent states. July 2nd, 1776, therefore, marks the end of the United Colonies of America and the beginning of the Second United American Republic: The United States of America, Thirteen Independent States United in Congress.





[1] Letter from John Adams to Abigail Adams, 3 July 1776. Original manuscript from the Adams Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society. “But the Day is past. The Second Day of July 1776 will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the Day of Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.”
[2] A Committee of the Whole is a device in which a legislative body or other deliberative assembly is considered one large committee.
[3] JCC, 1774-1789, July 4, 1776
[4] Ibid.
[5] JCC, 1774-1789, July 2, 1776
[6] At the Philadelphia Convention on May 30, 1787, Virginia Governor and member Edmund Randolph moved to rename the United States, the “National Government of America.”  This name would remain as part of the current U.S. Constitution draft until June 20th, 1787, when it was moved by Mr. Oliver Ellsworth, seconded by Mr. Nathaniel Gorham “… to amend the first resolution reported from the Committee of the whole House so as to read as follows -- namely, Resolved that the government of the United States ought to consist of a Supreme Legislative, Judiciary, and Executive. On the question to agree to the amendment it passed unanimously in the affirmative.” Max Farrand, The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911.
[7]After the passage of Lee's resolution the Continental Congress enacted that "In obedience to their order, Captain Whipple and Captain Saltonstal were come to Philadelphia; Whereupon, Resolved, That the Marine Committee be directed to enquire into the complaints exhibited against them, and report to Congress."  On the third of July seven different resolutions were passed, and finally on the Fourth of July they “Resolved, That an application be made to the committee of safety of Pennsylvania for a supply of flints for the troops at New York: and that the colony of Maryland and Delaware be requested to embody their militia for the flying camp, with all expedition, and to march them, without delay, to the city of Philadelphia.”  All were enacted before the Declaration of Independence was adopted. Journals of the Continental Congress, July 2-4, 1776.
[8] On September 5, 1774 the delegates first assembled at Carpenters Hall but did not formalize the name of that body as a “Continental Congress,” until October 20, 1784.

By: Stanley Yavneh Klos




  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.

The Second United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781





 U.S. Continental Congress Chronology



1776 -- July 2 Declares independence. July 4 Adopts Declaration of Independence; prepares mobilization for the defense of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. July 8 Clarifies jurisdictions of northern commanders Gates and Schuyler; augments Washington's discretionary powers and commissary general's authority. July 10 Denounces British treatment of prisoners captured at the Cedars in Canada. July 12 Reads and orders printing of draft articles of confederation. July 17 Adopts "rules and orders for the government of this house." July 18 Reads draft "plan of treaties to be entered into with foreign states." July 19 Orders publication of Lord Howe's commission and correspondence to expose false expectations for a negotiated peace. July 20 Commends commanders of the American victory at Charleston. July 22 Adopts procedures for negotiating prisoner exchange; authorizes emission of additional $5 million in bills of credit; opens debate on articles of confederation. July 24 Broadens regulations for confiscating British goods on the high seas. July 26 Orders publication of an account of a conference between General Washington and a representative of Lord Howe. July 30 Recommends southern expedition against Cherokees; adopts sundry resolves in response to report on the miscarriages in Canada.

August 2
 Delegates sign engrossed Declaration of Independence; Congress authorizes employment of the Stockbridge Indians. August 6 Proposes general prisoner-of-war exchange. August 8 Orders General Lee to return to Philadelphia from Charleston; concludes three-week debate on articles of confederation. August 12 Holds inquiry into conduct of Commodore Esek Hopkins. August 13 Opens debate on revision of articles of war. August 14 Adopts plan for encouraging desertion of foreign mercenaries. August 15 Rebukes Commodore Esek Hopkins. August 16 Censures Commodore Esek Hopkins. August 19 Orders Commodore Hopkins to resume command of Continental fleet; adopts extensive new instructions for Indian commissioners in middle department. August 20 Reads draft Articles of Confederation and orders them printed in preparation for debate in committee of the whole. August 23 Authorizes additional troops on Continental establishment for frontier defense. August 26 Adopts measures for relief of disabled soldiers and seamen. August 27 Resolves to encourage foreign mercenaries to desert from British army. August 30 Adopts plan to improve postal system.

September 3
 Receives Gen. John Sullivan's written report on Lord Howe's proposal for peace conference. September 6 Designates Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge to meet with Lord Howe. September 9 Revises style of Continental commissions, replacing "United Colonies" with "United States." September 11 Committee meets with Lord Howe on Staten Island. September 16 Adopts new plan for a Continental Army of 88 battalions and system of bounties for recruitment of officers and soldiers. September 17 Adopts Plan of Treaties; receives report of the committee appointed to confer with Lord Howe and orders it published. September 20 Adopts Articles of War. September 22 Sends committee to New York "to enquire into the state of the army." September 25 Resolves to send committee to Ticonderoga to improve administration of northern army. September 26 Appoints Silas Deane, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson as commissioners at Paris. September 28 Adopts "letters of credence" for commissioners at Paris and plan for their maintenance.

October 1
 Appoints Thomas Mifflin as quartermaster general to replace Stephen Moylan; appoints committee to bring in plan for military academy. October 2 Refuses to accept Gen. Philip Schuyler's resignation as commander of northern department. October 3 Resolves to borrow $5 million and establishes system of loan offices to transact the business. October 7 Receives Gen. Charles Lee's personal report on southern department and advances $30,000 indemnity to him for loss of property in England. October 9 Appoints John Morgan and William Shippen, Jr., director of military hospitals "on the east side of Hudson's river" and in New Jersey, respectively. October 14 Accepts the report of the committee on the appeal of the libel case Joshua Wentworth v. the Elizabeth from the maritime court of New Hampshire. October 18 Appoints Thaddeus Kosciuszko colonel of engineers in Continental Army. October 22 Appoints Arthur Lee to replace Jefferson as commissioner at Paris; instructs commissioners to pro cure eight line-of-battle ships in France. October 28 Appoints committee to conduct inquiry into monopolizing and engrossing of military supplies. October 30 Rejects Maryland proposal to substitute money for land as an additional bounty; adopts new formula for division of prize money in Continental Navy.

November 2
 Resolves to emit additional $5 million. November 6 Resolves to appoint naval board in Philadelphia "to execute the business of the navy, under the direction of the Marine Committee." November 11 Directs Board of War to confer with Pennsylvania Council of Safety on defense of Philadelphia. November 15 Adopts new pay plan for Continental Navy. November 18 Adopts lottery scheme to raise Continental funds. November 20 Resolves to enlarge navy by eight additional ships. November 23 Receives news of evacuation of Fort Lee and British crossing of Hudson River. November 25 Urges Pennsylvania to mobilize militia for six-week emergency.

December 1
 Holds emergency Sunday session; authorizes General Washington to order troops from east of Hudson River to west side. December 5 Hears address of Indian delegation. December 8 Holds emergency Sunday session. December 11 Proclaims day of fasting and humiliation; instructs General Washington to contradict report that Congress was preparing to adjourn from Philadelphia. December 12 Adjourns to Baltimore; leaves Gen. Israel Putnam to direct defense of Philadelphia. December 20 Reconvenes in Baltimore; inquires into treatment of Gen. Charles Lee since his recent capture by the British. December 21 Appoints George Clymer, Robert Morris, and George Walton an executive committee of Congress at Philadelphia. December 23 Authorizes commissioners at Paris to borrow "two millions sterling," arm six vessels of war, and seek information on Portugal's hostile actions toward American ships. December 26 Appoints committee to prepare plan "for the better conducting the executive business of Congress, by boards composed of persons, not members of Congress." December 27 Confers extraordinary powers on General Washington for six months. December 30 Approves new instructions for American commissioners abroad and votes to send commissioners to "courts of Vienna, Spain, Prussia and the Grand Duke of Tuscany." December 31 Receives General Washington's announcement of his victory over Hessian garrison at Trenton.

1777 - January 1
 Appoints Benjamin Franklin commissioner to the Court of Spain. January 3 Directs General Washington to investigate and protest General Howe's treatment of Congressman Richard Stockton and other American prisoners. January 6 Denounces Howe's treatment of Gen. Charles Lee and threatens retaliation against prisoners falling into American hands. January 8 Authorizes posting continental garrisons for the defense of western Virginia and financing Massachusetts' expedition against Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia. January 9 Dismisses John Morgan, director general of military hospitals, and Samuel Stringer, director of the northern department hospital. January 14 Adopts proposals to bolster Continental money and recommends state taxation to meet state quotas. January 16 Proposes appointment of a commissary for American prisoners held by the British; orders inquiry into British and Hessian depredations in New York and New Jersey. January 18 Orders distribution of authenticated copies of the Declaration of Independence containing the names of signersJanuary 24 Provides money for holding an Indian treaty at Easton. Pa. January 28 Appoints committee to study the condition of Georgia. January 29 Directs Joseph Trumbull to conduct an inquiry into activities of his deputy commissary Carpenter Wharton. January 30 Creates standing committee on appeals from state admiralty courts.

February 1
 Orders measures for suppressing insurrection in Worcester and Somerset counties, Maryland. February 5 Orders measures for obtaining troops from the Carolinas; instructs Secret Committee on procuring supplies from France. February 6 Directs measures for the defense of Georgia and for securing the friendship of the southern Indians. February 10 Recommends temporary embargo in response to British naval "infestation" of Chesapeake Bay. February 12 Recommends inoculation of Continental troops for smallpox. February 15 Endorses the substance of the recommendations adopted at the December-January New England Conference and recommends the convening of two similar conferences in the middle and southern states. February 17 Endorses General Schuyler's efforts to retain the friend ship of the Six Nations. February 18 Directs General Washington to conduct inquiry into military abilities of foreign officers. February 19 Elects five major generals. February 21 Rejects General Lee's request for a congressional delegation to meet with him to consider British peace overtures; elects 10 brigadier generals. February 22 Resolves to borrow $13 million in loan office certificates. February 25 Adopts measures to curb desertion. February 26 Raises interest on loan office certificates from 4% to 6%. February 27 Cautions Virginia on expeditions against the Indians: adjourns to Philadelphia, to reconvene on March 5.

March 5-11
 Fails to attain quorum; on March 11 urges Delaware and New York to dispatch delegates to Congress. March 12 Reconvenes. March 13 Cautions agents abroad against recruiting foreign officers with limited English language skills; appoints committee "to confer with General Gates upon the general state of affairs." March 15 Reprimands General Schuyler for comments "highly derogatory to the honor of Congress." March 17-18 Adjourns for lack of a quorum-only eight states represented. March 19 Appoints committee on applications of foreign officers for military appointments; declines Baron de Kalb's offer of service. March 21 Appoints committee to confer with Gen. Nathanael Greene. March 22 Establishes and specifies the organization and duties of the office of secretary of Congress. March 24 Informs General Washington that Congress never intended him to feel bound by a majority in a council of war contrary to his own judgment. March 25 Urges Virginia to suspend operations planned against her western Indians; directs General Gates to take command of the army at Fort Ticonderoga; appoints William C. Houston deputy secretary of Congress. March 26 Suspends Esek Hopkins from his command of the Continental Navy. March 29 Reaffirms decision not to send a delegation to confer with General Lee.

April 1
 Adopts plan for "better regulating the pay of the army." April 4 Adopts commissary reforms recommended by General Greene. April 7 Adopts plan to reorganize the medical department. April 8 Adopts proposals to honor the memory of Generals Joseph Warren and Hugh Mercer. April 10 Orders measures for the defense of the western frontiers and appoints Gen. Edward Hand to the command at Fort Pitt. April 11 Appoints William Shippen, Jr., director general of military hospitals and a new staff of physicians and surgeons general. April 14 Adopts measures to improve recruiting and revises Articles of War. April 16 Urges Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut to attack the British forces at Rhode Island. April 18 Resolves to publish report on depredations; appoints committee to conduct inquiry into General Schuyler's command. April 21 Resumes debate on Articles of Confederation. April 22 Orders William Franklin into close confinement in retaliation for his urging Americans to seek royal pardons. April 25 Orders measures for reinforcing and mobilizing General Washington's army. April 29 Orders measures for the defense of Lake Champlain and Ticonderoga. April 30 Appoints committee to evaluate the consequences of the British raid on Danbury; adopts quartermaster and commissary general reforms.

May 1 
Considers possible hostilities against Portugal; appoints Arthur Lee commissioner to Spain. May 3 Exonerates Gen. Philip Schuyler from charges of misusing public funds. May 5 Debates Articles of Confederation. May 7 Appoints Ralph Izard commissioner to Tuscany. May 9 Appoints William Lee commissioner to Berlin and Vienna. May 14 Debates reorganization of the quartermaster department. May 20 Resolves to emit an additional $5 million. May 22 Appoints Gen. Philip Schuyler to command of the northern department. May 29 Considers draft address to the inhabitants of the United States.

June 3
 Appoints committee to oversee the defense of Pennsylvania. June 4 Empowers General Washington to offer rewards to encourage British desertions. June 6 Directs Secret Committee and Marine Committee to make an accounting of their proceedings and expenditures. June 10 Reorganizes the commissary department. June 11 Receives committee report on "ways and means for defraying the expence of the current year." June 14 Adopts the United States flag; disciplines Deputy Muster Master Gunning Bedford for issuing a challenge to delegate Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant for remarks made in Congress. June 17 Memorializes Gen. David Wooster for bravery during the defense of Danbury, Conn. June 18 Orders George Morgan to convene an Indian conference at Fort Pitt. June 23 Resumes debate on Articles of Confederation; hears New York complaint against inhabitants of "the New Hampshire Grants." June 30 Rebuffs movement to establish Vermont statehood.

July 1
 Adopts instructions for commissioners to Vienna, Berlin, and Tuscany. July 3 Adopts instructions for the commissioner to the United Provinces; dispatches troops to suppress Delaware and Maryland loyalists. July 5 Creates Committee of Commerce to replace the Secret Committee. July 7 Condemns Generals Greene, Knox, and Sullivan for an "attempt to influence" Congress. July 11 Appoints committee to proceed to camp "to make a diligent enquiry into the state of the army." July 14 Receives news of the retreat from Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. July 16 Appoints committee to confer with the French officer du Coudray on his "agreement" with Commissioner Silas Deane. July 23 Dismisses 12 naval officers to make an "example" of "combinations of officers to extort increase of pay and allowances." July 25 Appoints committee to study the defense of the southern frontier; commends Colonels Barton and Meigs for "enterprize and valour" in capturing General Prescott and conducting an expedition on Long Island. July 29 Orders an inquiry into the evacuation of Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. July 31 Commissions the marquis de Lafayette a major general.

August 1
 Begins inquiry into Commissioner Silas Deane's contracts with foreign officers. August 4 Appoints Gen. Horatio Gates to replace Gen. Philip Schuyler as commander of the northern department. August 5 Begins consideration of Committee to Camp report on the "state of the army." August 7 Directs General Washington "to negotiate an exchange of prisoners with the enemy." August 8 Records first roll call vote-on motion to promote Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold. August 11 Directs implementation of General Washington's proposals for defense of the Delaware. August 15 Agrees to accept parole of prominent Pennsylvania dissidents seeking to avoid exile to Virginia. August 20 Directs mustering of the Pennsylvania militia; dispatches New Jersey militia to New York to relieve troops for frontier defense. August 21 Endorses General Washington's proposal to march his main army toward the Hudson River; receives news of American victory at Bennington, Vt. August 22 Learns of British invasion of the Chesapeake; alerts Washington to the British threat to Philadelphia and issues call for the Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia militia. August 26 Requests Pennsylvania and Delaware to apprehend and disarm the "notoriously disaffected" within their states. August 28 Reverses decision to parole prominent Pennsylvania dissidents and orders their removal from the state.

September 1
 Orders inquiry into the failure of Gen. John Sullivan's expedition against Staten Island. September 4 Orders further call-up of Pennsylvania and New Jersey militia. September 6 Directs clothier general to provide clothing bounties to troops. September 8 Rebukes Silas Deane for exceeding his authority in negotiating agreements with foreign officers in France. Sept ember 9 Orders General Washington to write Congress at least twice daily "advising the position and movements of the armies." September 10 Adopts "ways and means" motion to pay interest accruing on loan office certificates in bills of exchange on the commissioners at Paris. September 11 Learns of the American defeat at Brandywine Creek. September 12 Directs Gen. Israel Putnam to reinforce Washington's army. September 14 Orders General Sullivan's recall until the inquiry ordered into his conduct is completed; resolves to convene in Lancaster, Pa., if the evacuation of Philadelphia becomes necessary. September 15 Orders investigation of a conspiracy rumored to be impending in Pennsylvania. September 16 Grants General Washington broad powers to punish military officers and to impress supplies for the army; orders removal of supplies from Philadelphia September 18 Evacuates Philadelphia. September 19-26 Delegates in flight to Lancaster, Pa. September 27 Convenes at Lancaster; adjourns to York. September 30 Convenes at York.

October 1 Resolves to meet twice daily. October 2 Authorizes delegates to draw provisions from Continental commissaries. October 4 Commends sundry officers for bravery in defense against General Burgoyne's northern invasion. October 7 Debates "mode of voting" under draft Articles of Confederation. October 8 Adopts penalties for "communicating" with the enemy; commends Washington for the "brave exertions" of his army at Germantown. October 9-14 Debates taxation proposals under draft Articles of Confederation. October 15 Debates powers of Congress under draft Articles of Confederation. October 17 Reorganizes the Board of War. October 20 Exonerates Gen. John Sullivan for failure of Staten Island expedition; learns informally of General Gates' capture of General Burgoyne's army at Saratoga. October 22 Orders inquiry into the conduct of Indian Commissioner George Morgan. October 23-30 Debates and revises draft Articles of Confederation.  October 29 President Hancock takes leave of Congress. October 31 Receives official notification of the Saratoga Convention.




1777  November 1 Elects Henry Laurens president of the Continental Congress.  November 4 Commends General Gates and his army for their defense against Burgoyne's invasion and various other officers and units for their defense of the Delaware. November 7 Names new appointees to reorganized Board of War. November 1014 Conducts final debates on Articles of Confederation. November 15 Adopts Articles of Confederation. November 17 Transmits Articles of Confederation to states for their consideration. November 19  Directs General Washington to inquire into the treatment of American prisoners. November 20 Adopts report on pacification of the western frontier. November 21 Recalls Commissioner Silas Deane from the court of France. November 22 Adopts economic program asking the states to levy taxes, call in paper money, and regulate prices. November 24 Adopts measures for improving the provisioning of the army. November 27 Recommends confiscation of loyalist property in the states; completes reconstitution of the Board of War, Horatio Gates named president. November 28 Appoints committee to confer with General Washington; orders inquiry into the failures of the Rhode Island expedition and the Delaware River defenses; appoints John Adams commissioner to France. November 29 Appoints committee to obtain a French translation of the Articles of Confederation and to invite Canada "to accede to the union of these states."

December 1 Rejects alteration of the Saratoga Convention to permit embarkation of Burgoyne's army from Rhode Island. December 3 Resolves to seek $2 million loan from France and Spain; directs suppression of Delaware loyalists; adopts instructions for retaining continued neutrality of the Six Nations; endorses proposal for a surprise attack against Lake Champlain. December 8 Orders Silas Deane's immediate return to Congress. December 10 Denounces Gen. William Howe's treatment of American prisoners; authorizes General Washington to impress supplies in Pennsylvania. December 13 Appoints Gen. Thomas Conway to newly constituted post of inspector general of the army. December 16 Receives report of the committee at head quarters. December 19 Questions General Washington's plans for a winter cantonment. December 26 Debates implementation of the Saratoga Convention. December 30 Grants navy boards increased authority over naval officers; extends General Washington's powers to impress supplies, discipline officers, and punish spies.

1778 January 2 Dismisses Esek Hopkins from the Continental Navy. January 8 Detains Convention Army in America until properly notified of Britain's "explicit ratification of the convention of Saratoga." January 11 Appoints committee to repair to headquarters to concert with General Washington on the reform of the army. January 12 Examines John Folger on the theft of despatches from the commissioners in France. January 14 Accepts Baron Steuben's tender of services as a volunteer in the Continental Army. January 15 Orders creation of additional magazines for supply of the army in Pennsylvania. January 16 Instructs committee at camp to evaluate an attack on Philadelphia. January 17 Resolves to issue an additional $10 million in loan office certificates. January 20 Appoints Charles Carroll and Gouverneur Morris to the committee at camp to replace members named from the Board of War. January 21 Adopts measures to secure improved British treatment of American prisoners of war. January 23 Names General Lafayette to command an invasion of Canada. January 27 Appoints committee to confer on the reform of the hospital department. January 3031 Studies proposals for reform of the quarter master department and for retaining the neutrality of the Indians in the northern department.  

 February 2 Appoints officers for Canadian expedition. February 3 Prescribes oath required of all officers of the United States. February 4 Directs commissioner to the court of Tuscany to seek $1 million loan; receives Committee at Camp recommendation that Jeremiah Wadsworth be appointed commissary general of purchases. February 6 Reforms medical department; appoints middle department physician general. February 11 Adopts regulations for commissary general of military stores. February 13 Requests North Carolina beef and pork embargo. February 16 Resolves to emit additional $2 million in bills of credit. February 17 Suspends Board of War's special purchasing agents. February 19 Relocates Convention Army for security purposes. February 23 Appoints committee to reexamine feasibility of Canadian expedition. February 26 Adopts resolves for arranging a prisoner exchange; adopts new Continental Army quotas and recruiting regulations. February 27 Prescribes death penalty for persons convicted of aiding the enemy.

March 2 Appoints Nathanael Greene quartermaster general and adopts new quartermaster regulations; urges cavalry recruitment; suspends Canadian expedition. March 3 Authorizes General Burgoyne's return to England. March 4 Authorizes Washington to employ Indians with the army. March 5 Resolves to emit additional $2 million in bills of credit. March 7 Designates April 22 a day of fasting and prayer. March 12 Urges states to keep three delegates in constant attendance. March 13 Adopts new commissary regulations; reassigns Lafayette and de Kalb. March 16 Orders return of Pennsylvania pacifists exiled to Virginia; orders study of state compliance with recommendations of Congress. March 18 Increases Washington's authority to negotiate prisoner exchanges. March 21 Adopts measures for defense of the northern department. March 24 Resolves to resume once daily sessions. March 26 Orders arrest of Delaware loyalists to thwart invasion threat. March 28 Appoints Casimir Pulaski to command independent cavalry corps. March 30 Adopts revised prisoner exchange instructions.

April 4 Resolves to emit additional $1 million in bills of credit; empowers Washington to call New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland militia. April 7 Adopts contract terms for Commerce Committee to execute with Roderique Hortalez & Co. April 9 Sets pay and allowances for commissary officers and appoints Jeremiah Wadsworth commissary general of purchases. April 10 Holds acrimonious debate on letter criticizing Washington, sparking walkout of Thomas Burke and Edward Langworthy. April 11 Orders Thomas Burke to answer charges of disrupting proceedings of Congress; resolves to emit additional $5 million in bills of credit. April 14 Adopts regulations for commissary general of purchases. April 15 Responds to Delaware protest that General Smallwood's seizure of loyalists infringed the internal police of the state; directs General Gates to take command of the northern department. April 16  Rejects motion to refer issue of Continental officers' pensions to the states. April 18 Orders inquiry into the loss of the Virginia. April 22 Orders publication of statement on North Ministry's peace proposals. April 23 Urges states to pardon and forgive penitent loyalists; requests Maryland to send troops to suppress Delaware uprising. April 25 Resolves that Thomas Burke's withdrawal from Congress was "disorderly and contemptuous." April 26 Holds Sunday debate on halfpay proposal for Continental officers. April 28 Accepts General Conway's resignation. April 29 Adopts plan to encourage desertion of British mercenaries seeking land and citizenship in the United States.

May 3 Holds Sunday session to consider treaties of commerce and alliance negotiated with France. May 4 Ratifies the treaties with France. May 5 Instructs commissioners to secure revocation of two treaty of commerce articles. May 8 Adopts an address to the inhabitants of the United States. May 9 Issues proclamation denouncing seizures of neutral shipping by American armed vessels. May 11 Instructs Massachusetts on safeguarding the rights of the owners of an illegally seized Portuguese vessel. May 13 Rejects motion to refer proposed officer pension plan to the states. May 15 Adopts plan to provide half pay for officers for seven years after the conclusion of the war. May 18 Receives "plan for regulating the army" from the committee at camp. May 19 Orders emission of $6.3 million in bills of credit to pay interest on loan office certificates. May 21 Authorizes Massachusetts to assist Nova Scotia revolutionaries at Continental expense; adopts principles for governing prisoner exchanges. May 22 Resolves to emit additional $5 million in bills of credit. May 26 Adopts revised "rules" of Congress. May 27 Adopts new "Establishment of the American Army." May 28 Revises commissions of the American commissioners to Vienna, Berlin, and Tuscany. May 30 Resumes twice daily sessions "for the space of one month."

 June 1 Debates instructions for the American commissioners in Europe. June 4 Recommends suspension of state price regulations; directs Washington to "proceed in arranging" the army. June 6 Rejects peace proposals submitted by Lord Howe and Sir Henry Clinton. June 8 Embargoes provisions (effective June 10November 15, 1778). June 11 Receives notice of the arrival of the Carlisle peace commission at Philadelphia; orders expedition against Fort Detroit; orders quartermaster department inquiry. June 13 Receives letter from the Carlisle peace commission. June 17 Adopts reply to the Carlisle peace commission orders halt to personal "correspondence with the enemy." June 20 Receives notice of the British evacuation of Philadelphia; resolves to emit additional $5 million in Continental currency. June 2225 Debates proposed state amendments to the Articles of Confederation. June 25 Orders reinforcements for Rhode Island. June 26 Orders Articles of Confederation to be engrossed for signing. June 27 Adjourns from York, "to Thursday next, to meet at the State House in Philadelphia."

July 26 Convenes in Philadelphia, but adjourns "from day to day" for lack of a quorum. July 7 Achieves quorum; thanks Washington for "gaining the important victory of Monmouth." July 9 Corrects engrossed Articles of Confederation and begins the signing; directs committee of arrangement to repair to headquarters. July 11 Receives news of the arrival in Delaware Bay of the French fleet carrying Conrad Alexandre Gerard and Silas Deane; directs Washington to prepare for a joint Franco-American offensive. July 14 Appoints committee to arrange public reception for the French minister Gerard. July 18 Rejects renewed overtures from the Carlisle peace commission. July 20 Endorses Ebenezer Hazard's plan to collect "various state papers relative to the origin and progress of the several European settlements in North America." July 23 Orders inventory of goods left in Philadelphia at the time of the British evacuation; receives Jean Holker's commissions as French marine agent and consul in Philadelphia. July 25 Defers attack on Fort Detroit; adopts measures for Pennsylvania and New York frontier defense. July 30 Emits additional $5 million in Continental currency. July 31 Appoints committee to "superintend an entertainment" for the French minister

August 1 Consigns tobacco for payment of Beaumarchais' contract claims. August 3 Investigates commissaries Benjamin Flower and Cornelius Sweers for fraud. August 6 Holds formal audience with French minister Gerard. August 7 Debates proposal to discipline board of war members for disregarding an order of Congress. August 10 Postpones proposal to exchange former New Jersey governor William Franklin for Delaware president John McKinly. August 11 Adopts declaration denouncing peace commissioner George Johnstone for attempted bribery of American leaders. August 13 Curtails issuance of passes for travel to British occupied New York; orders Silas Deane to at tend Congress. August 15 Orders Silas Deane to prepare an oral report on his mission to France; adopts resolution for maintaining the secrecy of correspondence of the committee for foreign affairs. August 17 Hears Silas Deane's testimony; receives resignation of Maj. Gen. Thomas Mifflin. August 20 Refers report on the inspector general's department to Washington; rejects motion to exchange William Franklin for John McKinly. August 21 Orders printing of the proceedings of Gen. Charles Lee's court-martial; hears Silas Deane conclude "the general account" of his mission to France. August 24 Orders the release of commissary Benjamin Flowers and the prosecution of deputy commissary Cornelius Sweers. August 28 Receives news of failure of the Franco-American attack on Newport. August 31 Adopts measures to improve recruitment of the Continental Army.

September 1 Refers passport application of British secret agent John Temple to the state of Pennsylvania. September 2 Recommends granting exemptions to the provisions embargo. September 3 Resolves to permit recruitment of German mercenary deserters; postpones expedition planned against Seneca Indians. September 5 Ignores appeal of secret British agent Dr. John Berkenhout for release from Pennsylvania jail; emits additional $5 million in continental currency. September 9 Votes thanks to Gen. John Sullivan for the conduct of his forces at Rhode Island; orders Rhode Island expedition inquiry September 11 Authorizes dispersal of Gen. John Burgoyne's Convention Army for its more convenient subsistence; urges Maryland to curb evasions of the embargo. September 14 Appoints Benjamin Franklin minister plenipotentiary to France; approves exchange of William Franklin for John McKinly. September 19 Reads committee of finance report; orders finance report printed. September 22 Orders examination of William Carmichael on the activities of Silas Deane in France. September 25 Appeals to Virginia and North Carolina to aid South Carolina and Georgia; appoints Benjamin Lincoln to command the southern department. September 26 Reorganizes the offices of the treasury; emits an additional $10 million in Continental currency. September 28 Conducts examination of William Carmichael. September 30 Conducts examination of William Carmichael; reassigns Casimir Pulaski's legion.  

October 2 Extends embargo to January 31, 1779; requests states to seize provisions to prevent engrossing and speculation. October 3 Informs Casimir Pulaski "that it is the duty of every military officer in the service of these states, to yield obedience" to the laws of the states. October 5 Conducts examination of William Carmichael on the activities of Silas Deane in France. October 6  Invites Dr. Richard Price to become a citizen and move to the United States to assist "in regulating their finances." October 8 Lifts limitations on the price of silver and gold. October 12 Adopts resolves to suppress "theatrical entertainments, horse racing, gaming, and such other diversions as are productive of idleness, [and] dissipation." October 13 Orders Washington to take measures for frontier defense. October 14 Receives documents from Silas Deane and schedules continuation of inquiry into charges made against him. October 15 Receives intelligence of the distribution of a "Manifesto and Proclamation" from the British peace commissioners. October 16 Orders seizure of persons attempting to distribute "manifestoes" of the British commissioners; orders removal of the Convention Army to Charlottesville, Va. October 17 Commends comte d'Estaing for his attempts to assist the forces of the United States. October 21 Orders arrest of British commissary of prisoners in Philadelphia; declares opposition to "partial and parole exchanges" of prisoners of war in favor of "a general exchange"; commends the marquis de Lafayette and declares thanks to the king of France. October 22 Assigns Horatio Gates to command of the eastern department; adopts instructions for the American minister to France and a "Plan of an Attack upon Quebec." October 26 Appoints a committee to prepare a publication on "matters relating to" negotiations with the British peace commissioners. October 27 Responds to the Governor of Havana for his introduction of Juan de Miralles, unofficial Spanish agent to the United States. October 29 Reorganizes the Board of War. October 30 Adopts a "Manifesto" vowing to take "exemplary vengeance" against future acts of enemy barbarity. October 31 Rejects proposal from the Spanish Governor of New Orleans for an attack on West Florida.

November 2 Authorizes an attack on East Florida. November 3 Appoints a comptroller, auditor, treasurer, and commissioners of accounts for the reorganized treasury office. November 4 Orders printing of the Franco-American treaties; resolves to emit additional $10,000,000 in Continental currency. November 7 Orders December 30 set apart as "a day of general thanksgiving"; reaches compromise in dispute over provisioning prisoners of war. November 10 Augments plans for an expedition against East Florida. November 11 Exempts embargoed flour purchased in Virginia for the French navy. November 12 Denies John Connolly's plea to be treated as a prisoner of war because of parole violations. November 14 Adopts incentives for naval enlistments. November 17 Orders closer confinement of John Connolly; adopts thanksgiving day resolve. November 19 Authorizes Washington to appoint commissioners to negotiate a prisoner exchange; receives Thomas McKean's charges against Gen. William Thompson. November 20 Hears General Thompson's denial of Thomas McKean's charges. November 23 Examines witnesses in McKean-Thompson dispute. November 24 Adopts rules for settling rank and seniority disputes in the Continental Army; authorizes Board of War "to finish the arrangements of the army agreeably to the resolutions of Congress." November 26 Receives New Jersey ratification of Articles of Confederation. November 27 Rejects petition for exempting grain for Bermuda from the embargo. November 28 Responds to Adm. James Gambier's threat to retaliate against American prisoners of war.

December 3 Confirms Gen. Philip Schuyler's court-martial acquittal; receives letters recommending secret British agent John Temple. December 5 Endorses Washington's recommendations for suspending preparations for a Canadian invasion; confirms Gen. Charles Lee's court-martial conviction. December 7 Orders Silas Deane to report in writing on "his agency . . . in Europe"; hears testimony in McKean-Thompson dispute. December 9 Receives Henry Laurens' resignation as president of Congress.


President John Jay


1778 - December 10 Elects John Jay president of Congress; endorses Gerard's proposal for encouraging privateering. December 14 Resolves to emit additional $10,000,000 in Continental currency. December 16 Resolves to contract the supply of Continental currency, to accept presidential expenses as a public charge and to ask the states to raise $15,000,000 in taxes; confirms General Arthur St. Clair's court martial acquittal. December 18 Directs Washington to attend Congress in keeping with his suggestion for "a personal conference." December 22 Hears Silas Deane "read his written information" concerning his agency in Europe. December 23 Continues Silas Deane hearing; continues hearing into McKean-Thompson dispute. December 24 Receives General Washington; continues hearing into McKean-Thompson dispute; accepts General Thompson's "apology. " December 25 Observes Christmas. December 26 Adopts loan office regulations for exchanging Continental bills. December 29 Adopts Gerard's proposal for protecting American grown masts; appoints three additional Continental Brigadiers. December 31 Continues Silas Deane hearing; adopts additional fiscal resolves.

1779 – January 1 Defers planned Franco-American attack on Canada. January 2 Adopts additional fiscal resolves to curb depreciation. January 5 Receives Gerard's protest against Thomas Paine's published letters concealing supplies from France. January 6 Conducts inquiry into Gerard's charges against Thomas Paine. January 7 Adopts Gerard's charges against Thomas Paine; dismisses Paine from his position as Secretary to the Committee for Foreign Affairs. January 8 Receives Henry Laurens' admission that he had informed Thomas Paine of Congress' confidential proceedings against him. January 9 Orders Henry Laurens to submit written statement of his "suspicion of fraudulent proceedings" by Robert Morris. January 11 Receives Henry Laurens' charges against Robert Morris. January 12 Disavows charges published by Thomas Paine concerning supplies received from France. January 14 Resolves to reassure France that the United States "will not conclude either truce or peace . . . with out [her] formal consent." January 15 Receives Francis Lewis' statement on Henry Laurens' charges against Robert Morris. January 19 Hears Henry Laurens' explanation concerning his charges against Robert Morris. January 20 Appoints committee to conduct foreign affairs inquiry. January 21 Appoints committee to "examine into principles of the powers of the . . . Committee on Appeals" and the refusal of Pennsylvania to honor the committee's decree in the case of the Active. January 22 Resolves to request Virginia, North Carolina and the Comte d'Estaing to provide assistance for Georgia and South Carolina. January 23 Adopts resolves to improve recruitment of Continental troops and to augment the authority of the commander in chief. January 26 Appoints committee to investigate Pennsylvania's charges against General Benedict Arnold, Continental Commander of Philadelphia. January 28 Debates Gerard's contention that Congress should compensate France for aid rendered by d'Estaing to the southern states, in accordance with article four of the Treaty of Alliance. January 30 Approves General Washington's request for leave to return to camp.

February 1 Debates Pennsylvania complaint against Matthew Clarkson. February 2 Orders reinforcements for South Carolina and Georgia. February 3 Confers with Gerard on supplying French fleet; resolves to emit additional $5 million in Continental currency; resolves to borrow $20 million in loan office certificates. February 5 Resolves to request French aid for South Carolina defense. February 8 Recommends embargo exemptions for relief of Rhode Island and Massachusetts; withdraws request for French aid for South Carolina; discourages French request for provisions for Martinique. February 9 Recommends relief for owners of Portuguese vessel illegally seized by American privateer; augments treasury staff to speed settlement of army accounts. February 11 Exonerates Robert Morris of accusations made by Henry Laurens. February 15 Meets with Gerard on Spanish offer to mediate peace and need to formulate American negotiating demands. February 16 Orders inquiry into Pennsylvania's charges against Benedict Arnold. February 18 Reorganizes Inspector General's Department and Ordnance Department. February 19 Resolves to emit additional $5 million in Continental currency. February 22 Receives William Lee's proposal for a commercial treaty with the United Provinces; Delaware ratifies Articles of Confederation. February 23 Debates negotiating instructions should Spain arrange peace talks with Great Britain. February 25 Accepts resignation of Major General Thomas Mifflin; augments defense of the northern frontiers. February 26 Authorizes embargo exemptions for the relief of Rhode Island and Massachusetts.  

March 1 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 4 Debates peace terms (bound­aries). March 5 Authorizes Washington to negotiate a cartel for a general exchange of prisoners. March 6 Adopts Declaration on Continental Authority over Admiralty Appeals. March 9 Urges states to accelerate recruitment and revises bounty provisions. March 10 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 11 Debates peace terms (status of Nova Scotia); creates corps of engineers. March 15 Debates peace terms (bound­aries). March 16 Debates peace terms (boundaries); authorizes reorganization of the corps of waggoners. March 17 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 19 Adopts peace terms concerning boundaries. March 20 Adopts Fast Day proclamation. March 22 Debates peace terms (fisheries). March 23 Reorganizes clothing department. March 24 Reprimands Matthew Clarkson for affronts to the civil authorities of Pennsylvania; debates peace terms (fisheries and navigation of the Mississippi). March 27 Resolves to report the yeas and nays in the published journals. March 29 Adopts measures for the defense of South Carolina and Georgia. March 30 Debates peace terms (fisheries). March 31 Resolves to publish the journals of Congress weekly. 

April 1 Endorses New York’s plan for reprisals against the Seneca Indians; resolves to emit additional $5 million in Continental currency. April 2 Adjourns for Good Friday. April 3 Adopts resolutions for restoring harmony with Pennsylvania officials incensed over Congressional response to their prosecution of Benedict Arnold. April 6 Opens debate on the recall of American commissioners abroad. April 7 Adopts plan to encourage rebellion in Nova Scotia; debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 8 Authorizes prisoner exchange in the southern department. April 9 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 13 Endorses plan for creation of a corps of French volunteers in South Carolina. April 14 Reaffirms authority of state officials to issue safe conduct passes. April 15 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 19 Accepts resignation of Major General Philip Schuyler; authorizes additional brigade for Rhode Island defense. April 20 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 21 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 22 Rejects motion to recall Benjamin Franklin. April 26 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 27 Appropriates 2,000 guineas in specie for Washington's secret service. April 30 Debates recall of Arthur Lee.

May 1 Debates recall of Arthur Lee. May 3 Rejects motion to recall Arthur Lee (tie vote). May 4 Appoints committee to meet with Delaware Native American delegation. May 5 Resolves to emit additional $10 million in Continental currency. May 6 Observes day of fast. May 7 Denies Bermuda petition for provisions embargo exemption; orders Virginia and North Carolina reinforcements to South Carolina. May 8 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 10 Authorizes Washington to concert combined Franco American operations. May 11 Appoints General Duportail commandant of the corps of engineers. May 12 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 13 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 14 Meriwether Smith charges Henry Laurens with injuring the honor of Congress. May 15 Henry Laurens denounces attack by Meriwether Smith. May 17 Directs Native American affairs commissioners (northern department) to consult with Washington on all Native American treaty negotiations. May 18 Authorizes embargo exemption for provisions for Bermuda. May 19 Increases states' 1779 quotas an additional $45 million. May 20 Receives Virginia proposal for ratifying Articles of Confederation by less than unanimous consent; debates recall of Ralph Izard. May 21 Receives Maryland delegate instructions on Articles of Confederation; receives Connecticut delegate instructions on ratifying confedera­tion without the state of Maryland. May 24 Debates Deane-Lee controversy; authorizes retaliation for cruelties committed by British forces against French subjects in Virginia. May 25-26 Confers (by committee) with Delaware Native American delegation. May 26 Allows Pennsylvania President Reed to address Congress on American fiscal crisis; adopts address to the inhabitants of America on meeting finance and manpower quotas. May 27 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 29 Debates New York proposals for settlement of Vermont issue. 

June 1 Resolves to send a committee to Vermont. June 3 Debates peace terms (fisheries). June 4 Resolves to emit additional $10 million. June 5 Adopts plan to fund Beaumarchais' claims. June 7 Adopts vote of confidence in quartermaster and commissary generals (refuses to accept Commissary Jeremiah Wadsworth's resignation); appoints committee to consider powers of foreign consuls. June 8 Recalls Ralph Izard and William Lee, American commissioners abroad. June 10 Debates Arthur Lee's recall. June 11 Resolves to borrow $20 million domestically at 6 percent interest. June 12 Exonerates Dr. John Morgan. June 14 Debates price regulation proposals. June 15 Directs Washington to investigate charges against Dr. William Shippen, Jr.; prepares request for supplies from king of France. June 16 Denounces seizure of New York officials by inhabitants of the New Hampshire Grants. June 17 Debates peace terms; reaffirms French alliance provisions prohibiting negotiation of separate peace. June 19 Debates peace terms (fisheries). June 21 Reverses plan to enlist German deserters; de bates financial reform. June 23 Debates financial reform. June 24 Debates peace terms (fisheries). June 25 Debates financial reform. June 28 Rejects quartermaster appeal for relief from state taxes.

July 1 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 2 Sets procedures for exchanging withdrawn emissions of Continental currency. July 6 Approves export of provisions for French fleet; debates peace terms (fisheries). July 7 Debates financial reform. July 9 Orders investigation of commissary and quartermaster purchasing practices. July 12 Confers with French Minister Gerard; receives report from two members of Vermont Committee. July 13 Receives report from other two members of Vermont Committee. July 14 Debates substance of conference with French minister. July 15 Orders retaliation for British mistreatment of naval prisoners. July 16 Receives Arthur Lee's response to charges by Silas Deane. July 17 Resolves to emit additional $15 million; threatens retaliation for British mistreatment of Captain Gustavus Conyngham; debates peace terms (fisheries). July 19 Directs Marine Committee to prepare plan of retaliation for recent raids on Connecticut. July 21 Recommends compensation for Portuguese vessel illegally seized by American privateer. July 22 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 23 Adopts plan for the protection of Continental property within the states. July 24 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 26 Commends victors for capture of British post at Stony Point. July 27 Orders Virginia reinforcements to South Carolina. July 28 Debates financial reform. July 29 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 30 Adopts ordinance for reorganizing the treasury  July 31 Debates peace terms (fisheries).  

August 2 Exonerates Jean Holker on charges of profiteering and reaffirms Continental protection for French consuls and other officials. August 3 Debates peace terms (French alliance provision against separate peace). August 5 Debates peace terms (re. Spanish subsidy, Florida and navigation of the Mississippi). August 6 Authorizes payment of Silas Deane's expenses and releases him from obligation to remain in America. August 7 Debates peace terms (re. Spanish interests in North America). August 10 Requests North Carolina reinforcements for South Carolina. August 13 Debates instructions for minister plenipotentiary to negotiate peace. August 14 Debates instructions for minister plenipotentiary to negotiate peace. August 17 Urges states to provide half pay for Continental officers. August 18 Augments pay and allowances for Continental officers. August 21 Requests states to extend provisions embargo to January 1, 1780. August 25 Urges states to lift restrictions on interstate inland trade. August 26 Appoints committee for creating a supreme court for admiralty appeals. August 28 Debates financial reform. August 31 Receives Henry Laurens' complaint against Secretary Thomson for disrespectful behavior. 

September 1 Resolves that "on no account whatever" will Congress emit more than $200 million Continental currency. September 3 Receives notice that Minister Gerard will return to France. September 4 Observes death of William Henry Drayton. September 7 Receives notification of Spanish entry into the war against Britain; adopts farewell response to Gerard. September 9 Adopts letter of thanks to king of France; debates terms of prospective alliance with Spain. September 10 Issues appeal to states for clothing; debates relations with Spain. September 11 Debates relations with Spain. September 14 Reads memorials of Indiana and Vandalia land companies. September 16 Debates ways and means proposals. September 17 Conducts farewell audience for Gerard; resolves to emit additional $15 million; debates relations with Spain; debates ways and means proposals. September 18 Debates relations with Spain. September 20 Orders military and naval reinforcements for southern department; debates relations with Spain. September 21 Debates ways and means proposals. September 22 Debates New Hampshire Grants claims. September 23 Debates New Hampshire Grants claims, de bates relations with Spain. September 24 Requests authorization from Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York to mediate New Hampshire Grants claims; commends victors for attack on Paulus Hook; debates  relations with Spain. September 25 Debates relations with Spain and conduct of peace negotiations. September 26 Nominates minister plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of peace and of alliance with Spain. September 27 Elects John Jay Minister to Spain and John Adams to negotiate peace. 


President Samuel Huntington

1779 - September 28  Elects Samuel Huntington president of Congress; adopts commissions and instructions for John Adams and John Jay.

October 1 Orders preparation of a plan for reorganizing the conduct of naval affairs. October 2 Requests Vermont claimants to authorize Congress to settle Vermont claims. October 4 Adopts instructions for minister to Spain (John Jay). October 6 Admonishes Benedict Arnold on treatment of Pennsylvania officials. October 7 Calculates and apportions 1780 state fiscal quotas. October 9 Adopts circular letter to the states on meeting fiscal quotas. October 13 Authorizes Arthur Lee to return to America. October 14 Commends John Sullivan for conduct of expedition against the Indians; resolves to emit an additional $5 million; sets day of thanksgiving. October 15 Adopts instructions for minister to Spain; resolves to seek a loan in Holland. October 20 Adopts thanksgiving day proclamation. October 21 Appoints Henry Laurens to negotiate Dutch loan. October 22 Rejects appeal for Continental intervention against state taxation of Continental quartermasters. October 26 Adopts instructions for negotiation of Dutch loan and treaty of amity and commerce. October 28 Creates Board of Admiralty, ending management of naval affairs by congressional committee. October 30 Urges Virginia to reconsider decision to open land office for sale of unappropriated lands.

November 1 Appoints Henry Laurens to negotiate Dutch treaty of amity and commerce. November 2-3 Adjourns because of expiration of President Huntington's credentials as Connecticut delegate. November 5 Notified of evacuation of Rhode Island; appoints committee to plan an executive board to supervise Continental officials. November 8 Requests correspondence files of former presidents of Congress. November 9 Elects Treasury officers. November 10 Orders deployment of three frigates to South Carolina. November 11 Orders reinforcement of southern department; observes funeral of Joseph Hewes. November 13 Rejects resignation of Gen. John Sullivan; approves parole of Gens. William Phillips and Baron Riedesel of the Convention Army. November 16 Undertakes care of Spanish prisoners held at New York, rejects Massachusetts' appeal to retain Continental taxes to defray Penobscot expedition costs; recommends that states compel persons to give testimony at Continental courts-martial. November 17 Holds audience with the newly arrived French minister, the chevalier de La Luzerne; resolves to emit an additional $10 million. November 18 Gives General Washington free hand to coordinate operations with the French armed forces. November 19 Recommends state adoption of price regulations. November 23 Resolves to draw bills of exchange to £100,000 sterling each on John Jay and Henry Laurens. November 25 Adopts new regulations for clothing Continental Army; discharges committee for superintending the commissary and quartermaster departments. November 26 Appoints Admiralty commissioners. November 29 Commemorates General Pulaski's death- resolves to emit an additional $10 million; accepts resignation of commissary general Jeremiah Wadsworth. November 30 Appoints committee to confer with Washington at headquarters; accepts resignation of Gen. John Sullivan.

December 2 Receives notification of Spanish declaration of war against Britain; appoints Ephraim Blaine commissary general of purchases. December 3 Resolves to move Congress from Philadelphia at the end of April 1780; appoints Admiralty commissioners. December 6 Reinforces armed forces in southern department. December 9 Observes day of thanksgiving. December 15 Recommends that states extend provisions embargo to April 1780. December 16 Authorizes Gen. Benjamin Lincoln to coordinate southern operations with Spanish officers at Havana. December 20-24 Debates proposal to borrow $20 million abroad. December 24 Authorizes use of depositions of witnesses at courts martial in non-capital cases. December 27 Recommends moratorium on granting lands in region of Pennsylvania-Virginia boundary dispute; orders Post Office to institute twice-weekly in place of weekly deliveries. December 28 Authorizes Continental reimbursement of militia expenses incurred defending Connecticut against invasion. December 31 Endorses Board of War plan to employ greater secrecy to reduce procurement expenses.

1780 - January 3 Postpones decision on selecting a new site for Congress. January 4-8 Debates plan for creating a court of appeals. January 8 Reorganizes Georgia's Continental regiments. January 10 Dismisses Charles Lee, second ranking Continental general; debates plan for reducing the army to curtail expenses. January 12 Sends emergency appeal to the states for provisioning the army; abolishes mustermaster's department. January 13 Adopts new regulations for negotiation of prisoner exchanges. January 14 Recommends that states make provision for guaranteeing the privileges and immunities of French citizens recognized in the Franco-American treaty of amity and commerce. January 15 Creates Court of Appeals in admiralty cases. January 17 Endorses export of grain to French forces by the French agent of marine. January 18 Resolves to print the journals of Congress monthly, but ends practice of printing the yeas and nays. January 20 Orders investigation into the expenses of the staff departments; abolishes barrackmaster's department. January 22 Elects judges to Court of Appeals. January 24 Adopts new measures for recruitment of Continental troops. January 25 Halts pay of inactive naval officers. January 26 Appoints committee to confer with the French minister on joint Franco-American operations. January 27 Authorizes inflation adjustment in the salaries of Continental officials. January 31 Pledges to wage a vigorous campaign in conjunction with French forces during 1780.

February 4-5 Debates Continental Army quotas for 1780. February 9 Sets state quotas and adopts recruitment measures for an army of 35,000 by April 1, 1780. February 11 Affirms commitment to the re-conquest of Georgia. February 12 Confirms sentence in the court-martial of Gen. Benedict Arnold. February 16-24 Debates proposals for a system of in-kind requisitions from the states. February 22 Debates congressional privilege issue arising from the complaint of Elbridge Gerry. February 25 Adopts system of in-kind requisitions from the states. February 28 Postpones decision on selecting a new site for Congress.

March 2 Postpones debate on Vermont controversy. March 3 Sets "day of fasting, humiliation and prayer." March 4 Commends John Paul Jones and crew of Bonhomme Richard for victory over Serapis. March 8 Orders reinforcements for the southern department. March 13-18 Debates proposals for fiscal reform. March 18 Repudiates Continental dollar, adopting measures for redeeming bills in circulation at the ratio of 40 to 1. March 20 Recommends state revision of legal tender laws. March 21 Postpones debate on Vermont controversy. March 24 Observes Good Friday. March 26 Observes funeral of James Forbes. March 27 Rejects proposals for a new site for Congress; receives plan for reorganizing quartermaster department. March 29-31 Debates proposals for adjusting Continental loan office certificates for inflation.

April 1 Debates plan for reorganizing quartermaster department. April 3 Rejects motion to hear Elbridge Gerry appeal. April 4 Authorizes defense of New York frontier at Continental expense. April 6 Resolves to send a committee to confer with Washington at headquarters. April 8 Authorizes partial reimbursement to Massachusetts for Penobscot expedition expenses. April 10 Authorizes depreciation allowances for Continental troops. April 12 Adopts instructions for Committee at Headquarters. April 13 Appoints Committee at Headquarters. April 15 Appoints Joseph Ward commissary general of prisoners. April 17 Rejects proposal to appoint a "resident" at the Court of Versailles. April 18 Authorizes depreciation allowances for holders of Continental loan office certificates; authorizes issuance of commissions to Delaware Indians. April 20 Resolves to draw bills of exchange on John Jay in Spain. April 21 Adopts measures for the relief of prisoners of war. April 24 Adopts appeal to the states to meet fiscal quotas. April 28 Appoints Cyrus Griffin to Court of Appeals, William Denning to Board of Treasury.

May 2 Revises commissions, bonds, and instructions for privateers. May 5 Doubles rates of postage. May 10 Adopts regulations for replacing destroyed loan office certificates. May 15 Three Georgia delegates attend, representing the state for the first time in more than a year. May 17 Considers Committee at Headquarters report presented by John Mathews. May 18-20 Debates La Luzerne memorial on Franco American cooperation. May 19 Urges states to remit quota payments immediately. May 20 Urges states to meet troop quotas immediately. May 22 Urges Delaware to extend provisions embargo indefinitely. May 23 Debates Vermont controversy. May 26 Requests states to receive Continental certificates in payment of taxes. May 29 Debates Vermont controversy. May 30 Rescinds Committee at Headquarters instruction on the propriety of reducing the-Continental Army.

June 1 Adopts measures for defense of New York and New Hampshire frontiers. June 2 Censures Vermont settlers and pledges final de termination of the Vermont controversy when ever nine "disinterested" states are represented in Congress. June 5 Adopts plans for cooperating with anticipated French forces. June 6 Orders arms for southern defense. June 9 Postpones Vermont inquiry to September 12. June 12 Orders restrictions on the issuance of Continental rations; creates two extra chambers of accounts to facilitate settlement of staff department accounts. June 13 Appoints Horatio Gates to southern command. June 14 Adopts measures for the defense of the southern department. June 15 Issues circular letter to the states to reinforce the appeals of the Committee at Headquarters. June 19 Adopts measures to prevent and punish counterfeiting. June 20 Empowers John Adams to seek Dutch loan. June 21 Reaffirms commitment to Franco-American military cooperation; appoints an agent to transact U.S. affairs in Portugal. June 22 Endorses plan to establish a private bank for provisioning and supplying the Continental Army. June 23 Orders inquiry into the fall of Charleston, S.C.; reaffirms support for Georgia and South Carolina. June 28 Adopts plan for paying depreciation allowances to holders of Continental loan office certificates.

July 3 Orders Admiralty Board to implement intelligence gathering plan. July 5-6 Debates plan to reform quartermaster department. July 7 Endorses La Luzerne's request to permit the shipment of provisions to Spanish forces in the West Indies. July 11 Orders publication of Congress' May 1778 resolution requesting that Articles 11 and 12 of the Franco-American treaty of commerce be revoked. July 13 Orders Washington to seek the exchange of General du Portail, chief of engineers. July 15 Reorganizes quartermaster department; continues Nathanael Greene in office as quarter master general. July 17 Receives announcement of arrival of French fleet at Rhode Island. July 19 Opens debate on the court-martial of Dr. William Shippen, Jr., director general of hospitals. July 20 Suspends deputy quartermaster Henry Hollingsworth . July 25 Appoints Charles Pettit assistant quartermaster general. July 26 Orders deployment of Continental frigates to cooperate with French fleet; orders reforms in the department of military stores. July 27 Transfers responsibility for issuing privateer commissions and bonds to the office of the secretary of Congress.

August 2 Lifts restrictions on Washington's operational authority; chides Committee at Headquarters. August 3-4 Debates Quartermaster Greene's resignation request. August 5 Appoints Timothy Pickering quartermaster general to succeed Nathanael Greene; orders Washington to confer with French officers to plan the expulsion of the enemy from Georgia and South Carolina. August 7 Instructs Washington on exchanging prisoners of war and on reinforcing the southern department. August 9 Authorizes drawing bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin for the relief of the southern department. August 11 Dismisses Committee at Headquarters. August 12 Reforms department of military stores; responds to general officers' grievances. August 17 Commends General Rochambeau and the conduct of the French forces. August 18 Confirms court-martial acquittal of William Shippen, Jr. August 22 Orders punishment of abuses in the staff departments. August 23 Adopts regulations for the issuance of certificates in the commissary and quartermaster departments; authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin. August 24-25 Extends additional benefits to general officers. August 26 Exhorts states to implement Congress' March 18 resolves for exchanging Continental currency. August 29 Appoints committee to plan a "new arrangement of the civil executive departments." August 31 Receives news of General Gates' defeat at Camden.

September 1 Receives informal invitation to trade with Morocco. September 5 Authorizes issuance of loan office certificates to $1 million specie value at 6 percent interest. September 6 Urges states to cede western land claims and Maryland to ratify Articles of Confederation. September 8 Orders reinforcement of southern military department. September 13 Sets salary schedule for the Continental establishment. September 14 Reopens debate on Vermont dispute. September 15 Appoints Abraham Skinner commissary general of prisoners; adopts plan to supply meat to Continental Army. September 19 Convenes evening session to continue Vermont dispute debate. September 21 Approves enlistment of troops for one year in absence of sufficient "recruits enlisted for the war. " September 22 Authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin. September 25 Adopts new plan for the inspecting department, consolidating mustering functions under the inspector general. September 26 Resolves to instruct commanders of ships to observe principles conforming to the Russian declaration on neutral rights. September 27 Postpones Vermont dispute debate. September 28 Resolves to limit presidential terms to one year. September 30 Receives account of the treason of Gen. Benedict Arnold; adopts new plan for the medical department.

October 2 Authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Franklin and John Jay. October 3 Adopts new establishment for the Continental Army. October 4 Adopts instructions for John Jay on navigation of the Mississippi River and southwestern boundaries. October 6 Elects officers for hospital department. October 10 Adopts Virginia proposal to reimburse state expenses related to cession of western lands and to require that ceded lands "be disposed of for the common benefit of the United States." October 13 Appoints Daniel Morgan brigadier general; creates third chamber of accounts. October 14 Votes memorial for Baron de Kalb; commends various officers and troops for bravery at the battle of Camden. October 16 Receives proceedings of the Hartford convention of New England states. October 17 Adopts letter of instruction for John Jay. October 18 Instructs John Adams on peace negotiations; sets day of prayer and thanksgiving. October 21 Endorses proposal to receive Cherokee delegation; revises Continental Army establishment. October 23 Receives report on the victory at King's Mountain . October 24 Sends urgent appeal to the states on the present distresses of the army. October 25-31 Debates ways and means proposals. October 30 Confirms Nathanael Greene's appointment to command of the southern department. October 31 Orders cavalry reinforcement to southern department.

November 1 Authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin. November 3 Rewards captors of Maj. John Andre. November 4 Apportions $6 million specie tax, to be collected chiefly in kind; appoints William Palfrey consul to France. November 7 Authorizes prisoner-of-war exchange. November 9 Adopts letter of appeal to the states on present emergency. November 10 Adopts measures to curtail enemy fraudulent use of American privateer commissions; directs steps for reducing forage expenses. November 13 Commends troops engaged in the victory at King's Mountain November 14 Authorizes capital punishment for persons supplying the enemy with provisions or military stores. November 16 Receives Committee at Headquarters report; confers with Pennsylvania officials on provisions embargo. November 17 Resolves to appeal to France for 25 million livres in aid. November 22 Adopts appeal to the king of France; appoints William Geddes paymaster general. November 23 Rescinds election of William Geddes as paymaster general. November 24 Receives report on treasury inquiry. November 27 Adopts measures for outfitting Continental ships; adopts additional privateer instructions. November 28 Extends half-pay provisions to general officers; instructs Franklin on procuring aid from France and cultivating commerce with Morocco. November 30 Adopts revised commissary regulations.  

December 1 Adopts statement endorsing Arthur Lee's conduct abroad. December 4 Prohibits unauthorized military purchases; appoints Simeon De Witt Geographer to the Continental Army. December 6 Commends Benjamin Tallmadge's troops for Long Island raid; halts removal of Convention Army from Virginia. December 7 Observes day of prayer and thanksgiving. December 9 Adopts instructions for Consul to France, William Palfrey. December 11 Appoints John Laurens "envoy extraordinary" to France. December 15 Resolves to appoint a minister to Russia. December 19 Appoints Francis Dana Minister to Russia. December 21 Debates impact of John Laurens' appointment on Benjamin Franklin's mission in France; launches study of the conditions of Henry Laurens' imprisonment. December 22 Appeals to the states to fulfill Continental troop quotas. December 23  Adopts instructions for Special Envoy to France, John Laurens. December 27  Instructs Benjamin Franklin on John Laurens' mission to France. December 29  Commissions John Adams to negotiate a treaty of amity and commerce with the United Provinces.  

1781 - January 3 Appoints committee to confer with Pennsylvania officials on the mutiny of the Pennsylvania Line. January 5  Empowers the mutiny committee "to take such measures as may appear necessary to quiet the disturbances"; threatens retaliation for British mistreatment of American prisoners. January 6  Revives committee for the reorganization of the executive departments. January 8 Endorses proposal to receive Delaware Native American delegation. January 9 Recommends prosecution of former clothier general, James Mease, for "a high abuse of office. " January 10 Authorizes establishment of a permanent office for the Department of Foreign Affairs. January 12 Endorses treasury inquiry report acquitting commissioners of the chambers of accounts. January 15 Adopts new fiscal appeal to the states from New Hampshire to Pennsylvania. January 17 Appoints John Cochran Director of the Hospital Department and John Pierce Paymaster General. January 19 Opens debate on fiscal crisis. January 24 Receives report on the mutiny of the Pennsylvania Line. January 31 Receives committee of the whole recommendation for a 5 percent impost.  

February 2 Rejects Pennsylvania appeal for an emergency pay response for the Pennsylvania Line. February 3 Recommends state action to empower Congress to levy a 5 percent impost. February 5 Commends General Parsons' troops for the attack at Morrisania; defines alien property rights under the Franco-American treaties. February 7 Adopts plan to create departments of finance, war, and marine. February 8 Receives news of General Daniel Morgan's victory at Cowpens, South Carolina. February 12 Receives Maryland act authorizing ratification of the Articles of Confederation. February 15 Authorizes expenditures for the support of the eastern Native American department; authorizes John Jay to recede from previous instruction insisting on the free navigation of the Mississippi River. February 19 Orders inquiry into the causes of the delay in the shipment of clothing and arms from France. February 20 Orders the reinforcement and re-supply of the southern department; appoints Robert Morris superintendent of finance. February 22 Assigns March 1 for completing and ratifying the Articles of Confederation. February 23 Debates and recommits report on the Hartford economic convention. February 24 Doubles postage rates; adopts plan for ratifying ceremonies. February 27 Commends John Paul Jones for "distinguished bravery and military conduct, . . . particularly . . . over the British ship of war Serapis"; elects Alexander McDougall secretary of marine. February 28 Postpones election of secretary at war to October 1; imposes restrictions on ornate military uniforms and decorations; refers old business to the United States in Congress Assembled.




Chart Comparing Presidential Powers 
of  America's Four United Republics - Click Here

United Colonies and States First Ladies
1774-1788


United Colonies Continental Congress
President
18th Century Term
Age
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
29
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
10/22–26/74
n/a
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
30
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
28
United States Continental Congress
President
Term
Age
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
29
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
n/a
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
21
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
41
United States in Congress Assembled
President
Term
Age
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
42
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
25
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
55
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
46
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
36
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
46
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
38
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
42
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
43
01/22/88 - 01/29/89
36

Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
President
Term
Age
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
57
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
52
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
n/a
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
40
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
48
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
50
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
n/a
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
n/a
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
65
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
50
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
23
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
41
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
60
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
52
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
46
n/a
n/a
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
42
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
54
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
43
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
45
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
48
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
n/a
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
21
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
56
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
28
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
49
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
40
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
47
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
52
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
43
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
60
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
44
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
54
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
48
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
60
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
56
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
31
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
50
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
56
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
56
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
49
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
59
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
63
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
45
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
54
January 20, 2009 to date
45







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